A tunneling protocol is the one utilized by computer networks in cases where the network protocol or the delivery protocol encapsulates an unsuited payload protocol at a peer level or lower than it.
The protocol is termed as such because this appears as if it makes its way through the various types of packets.
It is sometimes recognized with the name “encapsulation protocol” but this label is very vague for the reason that there are other network protocols which are also designed to perform the process of encapsulation.
Tunneling protocol is widely used in transmitting large amounts of protocols through the typical networks.
In addition, it may serve as a medium for transferring virtual private networks (VPNs) that are already encrypted.
This protocol comes as an advantage since tunneling may be employed in transporting a payload over the mismatched delivery-network.
Tunneling protocol is also helpful when it comes to presentation of a safe passageway over a suspicious-looking network.
In common cases, tunneling may differ with some other forms of layered protocol including TCP/IP and OSI.
There are times when a delivery protocol functions at a more advanced level in the model compared to that of a payload protocol.
Rarely, however, does both the delivery and payload protocol work at similar level.
An attacker can use this technique to try to bypass firewall or intrusion prevention systems IPS. But more sophisticated firewalls and IPS systems can identify the attempts and still block the attackers.
Wrapping of protocols is a product of the mechanism performed by the conventional layered protocols.
This works in line with the other models such as the OSI model and TCP/IP model, which does not belong in the category of protocols that carry out tunneling. There are different procedures that may be employed by these tunneling protocols so as to do its job successfully.
One of which is the utilization of data encryption for the purpose of transferring a vulnerable payload protocol through a public network, in which the most common type is the Internet.
Lastly, this process solely offers the functionality of the VPN.